Bernard Grad of McGill University researched the psychokinetic effect of intention on the chemical composition of water (Grad, 1979). Specifically, Grad gave water to shamans and asked them to enable the water to enhance the growth of seeds to productive plants. Grad used chemical spectroscopy to analyze the ‘growth water’ he received from the healers. There was a significant change in the bonding of oxygen and hydrogen. The shamans only used their intention, and in so doing emitted healing energy. In separate experiment by Stanford University professor William Tiller, a shaman’s emitted energy when attempting to manifest an intention was measured to be 100,000 times the normal level of human energy emitted (Tiller, 2003).